What is Cloud Computing? Types and Service Types

An introduction to cloud computing, including how it works, what it can be used for, and the different kinds of it.

The term "cloud" can be thought of as a metaphor for the internet. Cloud computing is the sharing of resources, software, and information over a network. To elaborate, it is a type of internet-based practice that involves using remote servers hosted on the internet to store, manage, and process data rather than relying on local drives. These data can be files, documents, business data, videos, or images that can be accessed on demand.

Cloud computing has changed how we store and work with data in a big way. Cloud computing is changing not only how many businesses store and access data but also how many of these businesses operate. Although large corporations have more to gain from cloud computing, small and medium-sized businesses can also reap its benefits.

There are many advantages to using cloud computing for businesses and individuals, including cost savings, increased productivity, speed and efficiency, performance, data recovery, little to no maintenance, and security.

How Does Cloud Computing Work?

To understand how cloud computing works, it can be divided into two parts: the front end and the back end. They are linked by a network, usually the Internet.

The front end allows a user to access cloud-based data using a web browser or cloud computing software. The back-end serves as a repository, storing data that the front-end can access. The back-end acts as a storage place for data that the front-end can access.

A central server handles all of the communication between the front and back ends. Protocols make it easy for the central server to send and receive data. The central server uses both software and middleware to make sure that all client devices and cloud servers can connect to each other.

Types of Cloud Computing

Based on the specific deployment model, we can classify clouds as public, private, hybrid, or multicloud.

Public cloud

Public clouds offer their services via servers and storage on the Internet. Third-party companies manage and control all of the hardware, software, and general infrastructure. Because the cloud service provider manages the system, public clouds can significantly reduce costs for businesses. They also provide scalable RAM and flexible bandwidth.

Private Cloud

Cloud computing resources used by a single business or organization are called private clouds. A company's data center provides internal users with private cloud services. Private clouds offer similar benefits to public clouds, as well as higher security by encrypting sensitive data and hosting it internally. Many companies choose a private cloud because their workloads involve confidential data.

Hybrid Cloud

A hybrid cloud is one that combines two types of clouds: a third-party public cloud and an on-premises private cloud, with communication between the two. The various resources are coordinated to work as seamlessly as possible. Hybrid cloud solutions let businesses move and manage workloads between these different cloud environments. This lets them make more flexible setups based on their own business needs.


When an organization runs their applications using cloud computing services from at least two different cloud providers, they are said to be using multicloud. Multicloud environments typically use a combination of two or more public clouds or two or more private clouds in place of a single cloud stack. Multi-cloud allows enterprises to move fast, spend less, and reduce risk across a distributed IT landscape when done right.

Types of Cloud Computing Services

Cloud computing can be classified according to the service type or the deployment model. Based on service type, cloud computing can be classified as software-as-a-service (SaaS), platform-as-a-service (PaaS), and infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS).


SaaS is a cloud-based method of delivering software to users via the internet. A SaaS application can be accessed via browser or app. The service provider manages all of the hardware, middleware, application software, and security in the SaaS model. In most cases, SaaS users pay a monthly or annual subscription fee; some may offer "pay-as-you-go" pricing based on your actual usage.


PaaS is a cloud computing service that supplies an on-demand environment for developing, testing, delivering, and managing software applications. In the PaaS model, users have access to the necessary developer tools to build and manage mobile and web applications without having to worry about the underlying infrastructure. The infrastructure and middleware components are hosted by the provider, and the customer accesses them via a web browser.


IaaS provides businesses and individuals with infrastructure resources such as compute, storage, networking, and virtualization via the cloud. This solution gives the end user flexibility in terms of hosting custom-built apps or standard software, as well as a general data center for storage. In contrast to PaaS and SaaS, IaaS provides the most basic level of control over cloud resources.